Can you spot the difference between Lama and Alpaka?

Even though they are in the same family, Camelidae, alpacas and llamas are used for different purposes by humans.

Alpacas are used for their fiber while llamas are used as pack animals or in meat production. The average llama is roughly twice the size of the average alpaca. An average alpaca stands 34″- 36″ at the withers (shoulders), whereas a llama stands 42″- 48″ at the withers. Most alpacas weigh between 100 and 175 pounds when fully grown. Llamas on the other hand weigh in the neighborhood of 200 to 350 pounds with some as heavy as 400 pounds. There are differences in the body and head, especially the shape of the ears.

The llama is easily distinguished by its long banana-shaped ears. The alpaca has shorter spear-shaped ears. From the side, llamas generally have a longer face; alpacas have a shorter, more compact appearance. A llama’s back is straighter, which makes them good for packing.

Alpaka

P1000030

Lama

Lama_glama.1

The llama has a very coarse outer coat over a softer inner coat – as opposed to the alpaca, which has a very fine, single coat. The llama has coarse guard hair which protects its fine, inner coat of fleece from the chafing of the pack on its back. Alpacas do not have guard hair in the prime fleece of this “blanket” area. In addition, the llama produces far less fiber per animal than the alpaca, despite its much larger size. This is because the alpaca has been domesticated and carefully bred for over 6000 years as a luxury fiber-producing animal. The llama has been bred for the same amount of time as a pack-carrying animal. Its purpose has traditionally been to carry packs in mountainous terrain.

In addition to its packing use, the llama makes a very good guard animal for alpacas, sheep and other small livestock. They are also used for pulling carts.

Normally, alpacas command a higher price than llamas due to their luxury fiber.

5 reasons travel is good for your health

 

Woman practicing yoga on pier

Americans are forfeiting their vacation days, despite the stress, anxiety and other negative effects of not taking time off from work. In fact, a report by Project: Time Off, shows U.S. employees took about 16 vacation days in 2013, down from about 20 in 2000. Apart from depriving yourself the chance to enhance your productivity and work performance, avoiding taking a break can lead to stress overload and other potentially damaging effects on your health, experts say.

After all, vacations offer the chance to relax and restore overall well-being. But simply taking a hiatus from your demanding workday schedule isn’t enough. Traveling somewhere new can enable you to immerse yourself in new surroundings, boost your brain power and fully recharge. With this in mind, here are five reasons why traveling is smart for the mind, body and soul and expert tips for making the most out of your vacation days to rejuvenate and ensure a stress-free getaway.

#1 You’ll Recharge Emotionally and Increase Empathy

According to Wallace J. Nichols, author of “Blue Mind: The Surprising Science That Shows How Being Near, In, On, or Under Water Can Make You Happier, Healthier, More Connected and Better at What You Do” vacationing — especially near the water – can help us reset our emotions and actually increase compassion. “Often associated with feelings of awe and wonder, water can boost our empathy and compassion, our connection to ourselves and those we are with, and for many — from musicians like Pharrell Williams to neurologists like Oliver Sacks — it’s a steady source of creativity and insight,” he says.

#2 You’ll Get Back in Shape

While some may not describe vacations as an opportunity to escalate their fitness routines, travelers may be more active than sitting in an office chair all day. Tourists may walk as much as ten miles a day while sightseeing in Europe or visiting Disney World. Travelers may also be more inclined to try new activities while in a new place, like paddleboarding or hiking. There are also fitness-centric resorts that encourage guests to get fit and try new workouts to boost physical and mental health away from home.

#3 You’ll Engage in New Surroundings and Eliminate Stress

Traveling has many advantages, with stress relief topping the list, according to Dr. Margaret J. King, the director of the Center for Cultural Studies & Analysis, a think tank focused on the ideas, products and ideas that drive consumer decisions. ‘There are lots of psychological benefits from change of venue from home and work to ‘third places’ devoted to just experiencing the environment. With a short list of activities each day, freed up from the complexities of ongoing projects and relationships, the mind can reset, as does the body, with stress relief the main outcome. Humans thrive on novelty, and travel offers the complete package with new faces, sounds and sights,” she says.

#4 You’ll Wind Down and Rest Up

Little sleep mixed with high stress can lead to irritability and negative consequences on your cognitive performance and efficiency. Max Hirshkowitz, chairman of the board of the National Sleep Foundation says a vacation is a great opportunity to catch up on sleep. To feel more energized, the NSF recommends at least seven hours of sleep per night for adults. “Reserve that time,” he says. “Make it an important thing you need.”

Girl with map at Brandenburger Tor

#5 You’ll Boost Your Mood

Many studies suggest that travel can improve our emotional state. A 2014 survey conducted by Diamond Resorts International found over three-quarters of respondents reported feeling happier when they planned a trip at least once a year. Dr. Leigh Vinocur, a certified physician and spokesperson for the American College of Emergency Physicians, isn’t surprised by the findings. “It’s hard to sit on a beautiful beach somewhere and ruminate about paperwork or deadlines. That is why over three-quarters of respondents to the Diamond Resorts International survey reported feeling happier when they regularly vacationed. Periodic and regular vacations while taking time for yourself and your family lowers your stress level and decreases the release of all those stress hormones that contribute to degrading our mental and physical health,” she says. Plus, studies show reminiscing about pleasant vacation memories may trigger happiness long after your trip.

20 useful tips when travelling with children

Travelling with children can be a bit like taking a herd of wild goats on holiday. Whether they’re your own or someone else’s, factoring a child’s needs into your travels involves a lot more than sticking on a CD full of pop music and making toilet stops.

Take your time

The greatest thing you can take – whether at the airport, sightseeing or getting from A to B – is extra time. Toddlers love to explore and don’t care for the time pressures of travel, so you’re more likely to all retain your cool if you factor the faffing, gawping, stalling, toilet stops and tantrums into your timeframe.

Book ahead

Whether you’re camping or staying in hotels, it pays to book ahead. Trying to retain the spontaneity of travel BC (Before Children) doesn’t pay off if you arrive at your destination to find you can’t bag a bed or pitch and have to hit the road again with tired, hungry toddlers melting down in the backseat.

Give them a camera

Giving toddlers their own (robust, child-friendly) camera encourages them to observe their surroundings and focus on what interests them. You might be surprised at the results from their knee-high view. Amongst pictures of feet and wheels, my three-year-old has shot flowers, animals, helicopters, boats, rocks and rabbit poo.

Be prepared for the climate

It’s simple advice, but children dressed comfortably for the weather and terrain will be happier in a new environment. With all the gear available, there’s no excuse for dressing toddlers in ski-suits four sizes too big, forgetting their gloves, or leaving them barefoot on a beach where sea urchins lurk.

Pack Pull-Ups for potty training

Planes and public transport during the potty training days can be a nightmare. As if you didn’t have enough in your hand luggage, now you’re expected to add a potty, three changes of clothes and bags of wet, stinky pants. Potty-training gurus may disagree, but if toddlers are still having lots of little accidents then I’m all for putting them back into Pull-Ups on the plane.

Be app-y

Thanks to toddler-friendly apps, there’s no need to cram a toy box into your hand luggage when travelling by plane. By all means take a book and a magic scribbler (crayons just get lost down the side of seats), but the most compact form of entertainment is a device loaded with apps and games.

Use public transport

Most toddlers love the novelty of travelling by train, bus and boat, so ditch the hire car and use public transport where possible. In Switzerland, my two-year-old would repeat the names of the metro stops as they were announced – provoking ripples of laughter and making him even more excited about boarding the train each day.

Invest in a child locator

In my experience, toddlers aren’t fans of reins, backpacks with a leash, or any infringement on their freedom. Keep tabs on them at airports, train stations and crowded attractions with a child locator. The child wears a small unit (strapped to a belt or shoe) and you keep the transmitter. If you lose your child set off the alarm and follow the sound to find them.

Keep bugs at bay

Whether you’re travelling to Paignton or Peru, antibacterial wipes and hand sanitizer are handbag essentials. A wipe of the cutlery in restaurants where you’re unsure of hygiene, or a squirt of hand sanitizer when there’s no washing facilities, can zap a few germs and prevent toddlers catching some common bugs.

Don’t forget the medicine

Whether they’re out of routine, jet-lagged, or eating less healthily, kids always seem to get ill on holiday. Dampen the impact of broken nights, frayed temperaments and fevers by packing an easy-to-swallow medicine such as Calpol in the UK. Other basic ingredients in your first aid kit should include antiseptic wipes, plasters, sting treatment, and a thermometer.

Don’t let the children pack their own rucksacks

We once went on a trip with our eight-year-old, who complained incessantly that her backpack was too heavy. The reason why? She’d brought along her entire collection of fossils “just in case”. Do let the children have input but remember to edit this heavily before departure.

Keep the activities coming

If you’re heading out on a long journey have a collection of toys to be handed out once an hour. Handheld puzzles, tiny colouring books, stickers, wordsearches and even tiny packs of Plasticine will pass the time on a long flight or car journey.

Have a number of family games ready in case of delay.

Punch-buggy and padiddle are popular, if violent, favourites for car journeys, whereas more cerebral ones like the Alphabet game are safer for air travel.

little girl with straw hat sitting at the airport

Avoid sweets

Resist the temptation to keep them going on a long journey by feeding them sweets. Pack a mixture of savoury snacks like cheese cubes, breadsticks, fruit and bagels – anything to avoid arriving in a strange city with children in the middle of a sugar rush.

Encourage them to keep a travel journal

Get your kids drawing and listing things they’ve seen and interesting foods they’ve tried. Who knows, this might also encourage them to try different foods. Collecting postcards from places you visit and asking them to write themselves a message on the back means they can reach adulthood with a library of memories all their own.

Remember the medicine

It should already be on your travelling list, but having kids along means carrying a small first aid kit is all the more vital: plasters, antihistamines and sachets of painkilling syrup can save a lot of stress later on. Antimalarials are also available in liquid form.

Brand them

If you’re going to be travelling through busy, crowded airports or transport hubs, write your mobile number on your child’s arm in biro in case they get lost.

Check your passports

Children’s passports only last five years and they have a habit of running out when you’re not looking. Allow at least four weeks to renew one. The cost of a last-minute passport is astronomical, and particularly galling if you only realise it’s necessary when already in the ferry queue at Calais. Don’t ask us how we know this. We just do.

Remember the baby wipes

Even if all your children are long out of nappies, don’t forget the baby wipes. They’re useful for washing hands, cleaning toilet seats, and wiping down restaurant tables. In the same spirit, little bottles of hand cleanser can be a lifesaver in some countries, but check the travel regulations for liquids well in advance.

Engage and involve older children

The best way to avoid a soul-destroying sulk from your teenager is to involve them in the planning of the holiday and ask them for input on what they’d like to do. You might be surprised to hear it’s not spending all day on the internet.

Discover health benefits of Golden Berries, Peruvian super food

uchuva o golden berry 2ef

Golden berry (Physalis peruviana) it not a true berry. It’s in the tomato family, and closely related to the ground tomato known as tomatillo. Tomatoes are nightshades, a large group of plants that also includes potatoes, eggplants, and golden berries. Called “aguaymanto” in Peru, golden berries look like small yellow tomatoes. Now golden berries are making their way in to American health food stores as the newest super food.

These beautiful little fruits are native to the Andes of South America where they grow profusely. They especially like to trail among rows of native corn where little children pick them to supplement family nutrition. When ripe, the outer shell is discarded and only the bright yellow-orange fruit is eaten. They taste moderately sweet, with a slight citrusy tang. Gathered wild, they are eaten fresh and are also made into a preserved commercial jam, but with lots of sugar added.

Though new to the market in the U.S., golden berries have a long history of exportation and use in Europe, the Middle East, and China. In the 1800s, they were first brought to Europe and later commercially cultivated in South Africa, where they are called Cape gooseberries, and where they fast became a staple commodity.

It took another hundred years for golden berries to make it to the United States. Here, they are known as Incan golden berry or Pichuberry, named after Machu Picchu, and marketed as a Peruvian super food.

Low in Calories

Golden berries only have about 53 calories per 100 grams, the amount of a typical serving. They contain vitamins A, C, E, K1, B1, B2, and B3, as well as fatty acids and phytosterols. Trace amounts of calcium and iron, plus other minerals, are also found in golden berries. But their claim as a super food does not come from their nutritional value.

High in Antioxidants

This unique fruit has specialized antioxidants including polyphenols and carotenoids, qualifying it as a super food useful for their anti-inflammatory and other healing qualities. Research has found use of golden berry extract in cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. The berries also have liver and kidney protective properties.

A recent study found golden berry extract improved kidney function after renal injury. Apparently, their unique antioxidant power is the key to their healing value.

Healing Power of Withanolides

The primary compound in golden berries that seem to do the healing are a group of naturally occurring steroidal lactones called “withanolides.” The entire plant, not just the fruit, contains withanolides. Four main withanolides have been isolated from the plant, along with the discovery of nine previously unknown withanolides.

Withanolides are also what gives Ashwagandha its value as an adaptogenic healing plant. Considerable research has been conducted on Ashwagandha, often termed Indian ginseng, because of its benefits to the endocrine system. The withanolides in golden berries are considered to have similar effects including anticancer benefits.

Though beating cancer with plants alone is controversial, those like golden berries that contain withanolides can be useful in adjunctive therapy. Research suggests that the powerful inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha is suppressed in the presence of withanolides. This suppressing effect turns on genes that enhance cancer cell death, called “apoptosis.” They also help prevent metastasis—the spreading of cancer throughout the body.

10 Healing Properties of Golden Berries

  1. Antioxidant effects
  2. Cancer protective effects
  3. Counters bacteria
  4. Kidney protective effects
  5. Liver protective effects
  6. Lowers fever
  7. Lowers blood sugar
  8. Modulates immune function
  9. Reduces inflammation
  10. Weight loss benefits

A New Super Food

Golden berries with their high antioxidant value and low sugar content can play a role in low calorie and diabetic diets and products. Their nutrient value adds benefits to salads, yogurt, and cooked dishes.

Though essential fatty acids only make up 2% of the fruit, the oil content is mostly linoleic acid. Its low saturated acid and high phytosterol content make it useful for those on cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering diets.

The natural sugar content is mainly sucrose. It is very low in fructose, and with only 0.5% sucrose, it’s a tasty source of nutrition while on weight loss diets.

Like many Amazonian and Andean plant foods, golden berries are loaded with vitamin C. There is more vitamin C in this exotic fruit than in pears, pineapples, or plums, and only slightly less than citrus fruits.

sweet-golden-berriesc

How To Use Golden Berries

Scientists are only just beginning to discover the full value of this fruit, but why wait to enjoy it? Consider adding a handful of golden berries to your morning protein blended smoothie. Natural health products that contain golden berry include beverages, yogurts, sugar-free preserves, smoothies. Of course, you can also go for the whole dried fruit.

Though golden berries are generally considered non-toxic, one study found that in very high doses they could cause toxicity in heart tissue in men. Those with allergies or sensitivity to the nightshade family should avoid consuming golden berries to prevent possible reactions.

Ultimate guide on how not to be ripped off while travelling

budget-travel_web

Travel expenses can really add up. But they don’t have to be quite to hefty is you know how to work the system. Follow these ten tips to travel as cheaply as you can.

Avoid baggage fees. 

Depending upon the airline, you can pay $15 to $75 for the first checked bag, and more for overweight bags. When possible, pack lightly enough to carry on one bag, or fly airlines that still allow free checked bags (two bags for Southwest and one for JetBlue). Many airline frequent flier programs give members with a high status a free checked bag, so check your status.

Watch your hotel Wi-Fi. 

Hotels charge from $10 to $30 per day for in-room Wi-Fi. Set up a personal hot spot on your smart phone and use your cellular service to access Wi-Fi on other non-cellular devices. Some hotel chains offer free in-room Internet access to members of their loyalty programs, so ask in advance and sign up to take advantage of the offers.

Avoid paying double for rental car insurance.

Check your current car insurance policy to see if it covers your rental car. Don’t forget to call your credit card company to check their coverage of rental car insurance, too. Major credit card companies (including American Express, MasterCard, Discover, and Visa) offer protection if you use your card to pay for the rental.

Bring an empty water bottle with you through security at the airport.

Then, fill it up at a water fountain or ask a barista at a coffee shop to fill it up for you to avoid the overpriced water sold at airports. Pick up some snacks at a local corner store instead of hitting the hotel room mini bar, which can lead to expensive surprises on your final bill.

Review restaurant and hotel bills carefully

Mistakes often occur by accident, so be sure to go over every bill when you get it. It sounds obvious, but it can’t be repeated enough. And if there is a mistake, politely ask the staff to fix it. A polite request will go much further than an aggressive accusation.

Avoid paying transaction fees for using your debit or credit card overseas.

Check with your bank before you leave town. Some charge $5 per withdrawal, and an added 3% for all credit card purchases. Many credit cards and banks do not charge these fees. Avoid carrying a ton of cash around with you while abroad. Use your credit or debit card and go to ATMs for cash. Before you go call your bank and credit card companies to put a “travel alert” on your file detailing your travel plans, so they don’t think the foreign transactions are fraudulent and freeze your accounts.

Look out for tourist trap restaurants.

If you’re visiting a restaurant or attraction that has an online presence, Google it or search it on Yelp! to see what the locals say about it and to see if there are coupons available for some extra savings. Often restaurants run deals on Yelp! where if you “Check in” at that restaurant and review it, you get a free dessert or 15% off the total bill. If the reviewers say it’s a big tourist trap, steer clear.

Bring your own food for a long flight.

The in-flight meals are often expensive and disappointing, and everyone will drool over the takeout burrito you were smart enough to pick up en route to the airport.

Think ahead and pick up some nips.

Make sure they are three ounces or fewer to comply with TSA requirements. Bring the small bottles with you to avoid the $6 “cocktail” charge many domestic airlines charge for weak drinks.

Ask lots of questions and read the fine print before signing up for an organized tour

Questions to ask include: “Is tax included in the price? What can I expect to pay in tips? Any meals that are not included? Is alcohol included? Are all side trips/shore excursions included in the price, and if not, how much are they? What are your cancellation policies?” The point is, sometimes the tour is not worth the price, and it’s often cheaper to do it on your own — so be discerning.

planning-travel-budget

In the end, remember: Getting ripped off is often an unavoidable part of trouble. If it happens to you, learn from your mistakes, but don’t let it ruin your day.

Amazing facts about Inca culture you probably never heard of

machu_picchud

The Inca civilization was amazing in many ways. In little more than 300 years, the Incas created an empire that stretched from present-day Colombia through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia to northern Chile and Argentina. In the 15th Century the Incas ruled over 250 separate peoples, and nine million people! Even more astonishing is that the Incas constructed 30,000 km of roads and all their majestic buildings without using animals, or even basic technology such as pulleys or wheels.

Quite something, I’m sure you’ll agree. And now, 15 more curious facts about the Incas:

Skull deformations

Did you know the Incas considered deformed skulls beautiful? They would wrap bandages tightly  around the heads of their children to purposefully deform their skulls by limiting growth in one direction. The Incas were not alone in this practice: ​​other cultures such as the Mayas, Makrokephaloi, Huns, Alemanni, Thuringians and Burgundians also deformed skulls for aesthetic purposes.

zsfds

Worn once, then burnt

Once upon a time the Sapa Inca, the king of the Incas, was traveling in a sedan chair through his kingdom. All those who appeared before him had to be barefoot; even the highest dignitaries had to bring symbolic gifts, to show deference. The Sapa Inca showed his indifference by sitting behind a barrier and refusing to address his audience directly. He only ever wore the same clothing once: After wearing, the used garments would be burned in a ceremony.

Guinea pig – an Inca speciality

Did you know that in addition to llamas, alpacas and ducks, guinea pigs were also kept as pets, and eaten too? This traditional dish has survived to this day: Cuy, grilled guinea pig, is still a popular dish in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.

img_14861sdg

Skull surgery

In 15th Century Europe, kills were often quick and clean. Death by the hand of an archer was often so swift, the victims never felt a thing. Likewise, a powerful blow with a sword could lead to a quick demise, assuming the swordsman knew his craft. In South America, however, the forging of iron was still unknown: Death came mostly via clubs or slingshots. Often a dispute between Inca warriors ended not with death but severe head trauma, leading to prolonged agony. For this reason, the Incas developed the practice of opening skulls of the living to heal wounds.

Interesting fact: A study examining Inca skulls revealed that every sixth skull had a hole! It seems that most patients survived this surgery without major complications, thanks to the Incas’ remarkable skill in this unique type of treatment.

o-SKULL-facebook1

The Inca bone

Another interesting bit of trivia: Did you know that there is a bone in the human body that not everyone has? It’s called the Inca bone.

Loyalty through education

In order to retain the loyalty of subjugated tribes, the Incas implemented a similar policy to the Romans: Children of the conquered tribes’ leaders were moved to the capital, Cusco, where they were educated in elite Inca boarding schools.

Skulls as drinking vessels.

Did you know that the skulls of defeated chiefs were used as drinking vessels? The best known victim of this practice is Atahualpa, who after a long and violent power struggle against his brother Huascar in 1532, had his skull transformed into a drinking jar.

Earlobes to the shoulders

Did you know that Incas stretched their earlobes so much, they hung down to their shoulders? Interestingly, the Spanish name for the Incas at the time was Orejones, which means “big ears”.

Polytheism

The Incas were polytheists, which meant they had several gods. The most important was Inti, the Sun God. His wife, the Moon Goddess, took over his duties by night.

Inca Whispers

Did you know that the Incas developed a sophisticated postal system? They used chains of runners to relay messages. These fast-footed news couriers were stationed in pairs, one sleeping while the other awaiting news, so somebody was always on duty. Since the Incas had no writing system, the runners had to learn the messages by heart, like a story being passed on from one person to the other. You might call it an early form of Chinese Whispers!

Good Nutrition

Did you know that one study found no sign of deficiency or malnutrition in Inca corpses?

Quipu

You may have heard that the Incas developed a form of communication called Quipu, which was woven into textiles. But did you know that it’s still unknown whether it was used to convey information in writing, numbers or both?

No Taxes

Did you know that the Incas and no money and therefore no taxes? Instead, they developed a system to distribute all their resources, and allocated value instead to the hours they worked.

Polgamy

Did you know that while Inca nobles were allowed many wives, farmers had to be monogamous?

Qeswachaka- the 1500-year-old suspension bridge

Did you know the Inca-built suspension bridge, Qeswachaka, is rebuilt every year? All local communities help out, as they did in Inca times – the women weaving the grass ropes, the men using the ropes to construct the bridge. While the bridge is built, women are not allowed nearby, as this is considered bad luck!

0img0310_0zc

All you need to know about Pisco Sour, excellent Peruvian drink

Pisco-Sourf

Pisco Sour is a clear spirit, distilled from grapes, widely consumed and produced in both Chile and Peru. Historically, Pisco has been the matter of heated dispute between the two countries, both of them claiming Pisco is theirs.

To better understand it you need to know these simple facts:

– Cultivation and production of the Pisco started in Peru.

– Pisco is a port in Peru from where the drink was first exported.

– Organisation of Intellectual Property Rights in Geneva recently ruled that Pisco is a Peruvian product.

– Chile produces, exports and drinks almost 15 times more Pisco than does Peru.

But the debate doesn’t stop here… the Pisco Sour was invented by an English sailor in Iquique, a Chilean City which used to be Peruvian until the Pacific War when Chile took it. However, the recipe was greatly improved in Lima (Peru), many years later…And so it goes on.

If you want to keep friends in South America, when a Peruvian asks you who makes the best pisco sour, you say “Peru!”. When a Chilean asks you, you say, “Chile!”. If you are in a room with both Peruvians and Chileans then we can’t help but we’d love to hear your experiences!

So now that you know the history, here is the recipe:

piscosournunawefr

Ingredients

  • Pure Quebranta Pisco
  • Icing (powdered) sugar
  • Lime (ideally key lime or similarly potent) juice
  • Egg white
  • Ice cubes
  • Angostura Bitters

Preparation

  • In a cocktail shaker mix Pisco and fresh lime juice in a ratio of anywhere between 3:1 and 3:2.
  • Add sugar, usually about a tablespoon.
  • Now add the egg white, lots of ice and shake vigorously.
  • Adjust sweet/sour to suit.
  • Serve in short, stubby glasses with three drops of Angostura Bitters.

The drink should be a delicate green with a slight white foamy head on it… Enjoy in moderation! Pisco sour is traditionally an aperitif. Those in the know, know that whilst easy to drink these little chaps, if you have more than two before dinner you risk not being able to distinguish your knife from your fork.

Climbing Misti Volcano in Peru

Misti Volcano has an altitude of 5825 meters, it is located in the region of Arequipa, it is not a technical mountain, but nevertheless it is a stratum volcano with a presence of ash and sand. These characteristics increase the difficulty of this volcano to make it less easy, and so we advise any friends or clients, to trekking to Misti´s summit it is mostly a trek of altitude.

El Misti Volcano is the most popular symbol of the City of Arequipa, to speak about this volcano it is to speak about the Arequipeños and about their rich history. Thanks to this volcano and its acid eruptions (ashes), at present the City of Arequipa is provided with some of the richest grounds for agricultural activity, on the foot of the Misti Volcano there are rich valleys such as the Chilina Valley, which has been inhabited from before the arrival of the Spanish in 1540.

To order to climb el Misti Volcano, technical preparation is not needed as it is not a technical mountain; it is a stratum volcano which consists of ashes and of volcanic lava.

To climb this volcano is mainly a test of altitude. The only difficulty that we will have when climbing this volcano is the volcanic ash and sand, (in some cases dunes which are formed in the sand). We will find these elements on the volcano will make our ascent a little more difficult.

Peru is recognized internationally by the presence of the Andes Mountain Range. Arequipa is a region privileged for being provided with active volcanoes, snow-capped mountains of more than 6000 meters high and mountain ranges such as the Chila Mountain Range in the Colca Canyon.

The trips towards the volcanoes in the region of Arequipa are organized bearing in mind of quality standards, and safety mountaineering.

Iguazu Falls at Sunrise

Iguazu Falls are waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of the Argentina province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná. The falls divide the river into the upper and lower Iguazu. The Iguazu River rises near the city of Curitiba. For most of its course, the river flows through Brazil, however, most of the falls are on the Argentine side. Below its confluence with the San Antonio River, the Iguazu River forms the boundary between Argentina and Brazil.

The name “Iguazu” comes from the Guarani or Tupi words “y” [ɨ], meaning “water”, and “ûasú “[waˈsu], meaning “big”.[2] Legend has it that a deity planned to marry a beautiful woman named Naipí, who fled with her mortal lover Tarobá in a canoe. In a rage, the deity sliced the river, creating the waterfalls and condemning the lovers to an eternal fall.[2] The first European to record the existence of the falls was the Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1541.

Mountain Climbing

A few nice Mountain Climbing images I found:

Grandes Jorasses … 2
Mountain Climbing
Image by TomFahy.com
Looking east from the summit of Mont Blanc (4,810m).

Related: Mont Blanc 2012 | Mountain Diary

Buy Photographic Print

Profile, Collections, Links, Copyright

The Hog’s Back
Mountain Climbing
Image by Shaylor
This is near the summit of Mt. Hood in Oregon. Note the bergschrund the climbers in the background are circumnavigating.

Whatever the struggle, continue the climb. It may be only one step to the summit.
Mountain Climbing
Image by symphony of love
Whatever the struggle, continue the climb. It may be only one step to the summit. – Diane Westlake

When using this, please provide an active link, where possible, to: lovequotes.symphonyoflove.net

Original Photo credit: www.flickr.com/photos/simonov/2353482086